Design of a Clinical Decision Support System for Fracture Prediction Using Imbalanced Dataset

J Healthc Eng. 2018 Mar 22:2018:9621640. doi: 10.1155/2018/9621640. eCollection 2018.


More than 1 billion people suffer from chronic respiratory diseases worldwide, accounting for more than 4 million deaths annually. Inhaled corticosteroid is a popular medication for treating chronic respiratory diseases. Its side effects include decreased bone mineral density and osteoporosis. The aims of this study are to investigate the association of inhaled corticosteroids and fracture and to design a clinical support system for fracture prediction. The data of patients aged 20 years and older, who had visited healthcare centers and been prescribed with inhaled corticosteroids within 2002-2010, were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). After excluding patients diagnosed with hip fracture or vertebrate fractures before using inhaled corticosteroid, a total of 11645 patients receiving inhaled corticosteroid therapy were included for this study. Among them, 1134 (9.7%) were diagnosed with hip fracture or vertebrate fracture. The statistical results showed that demographic information, chronic respiratory diseases and comorbidities, and corticosteroid-related variables (cumulative dose, mean exposed daily dose, follow-up duration, and exposed duration) were significantly different between fracture and nonfracture patients. The clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) were designed with integrated genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) by training and validating the models with balanced training sets obtained by random and cluster-based undersampling methods and testing with the imbalanced NHIRD dataset. Two different objective functions were adopted for obtaining optimal models with best predictive performance. The predictive performance of the CDSSs exhibits a sensitivity of 69.84-77.00% and an AUC of 0.7495-0.7590. It was concluded that long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids may induce osteoporosis and exhibit higher incidence of hip or vertebrate fractures. The accumulated dose of ICS and OCS therapies should be continuously monitored, especially for patients with older age and women after menopause, to prevent from exceeding the maximum dosage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Algorithms
  • Area Under Curve
  • Bone Density / drug effects
  • Comorbidity
  • Databases, Factual
  • Decision Support Systems, Clinical*
  • Female
  • Hip Fractures / complications
  • Hip Fractures / diagnosis*
  • Humans
  • Insurance, Health / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / chemically induced
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Respiration Disorders / complications
  • Respiration Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Software
  • Spinal Fractures / complications
  • Spinal Fractures / diagnosis*
  • Support Vector Machine
  • Taiwan / epidemiology
  • Young Adult


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones