Consensus guidelines for the use and interpretation of angiogenesis assays

Angiogenesis. 2018 Aug;21(3):425-532. doi: 10.1007/s10456-018-9613-x.


The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is a complex process that plays important roles in growth and development, tissue and organ regeneration, as well as numerous pathological conditions. Angiogenesis undergoes multiple discrete steps that can be individually evaluated and quantified by a large number of bioassays. These independent assessments hold advantages but also have limitations. This article describes in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro bioassays that are available for the evaluation of angiogenesis and highlights critical aspects that are relevant for their execution and proper interpretation. As such, this collaborative work is the first edition of consensus guidelines on angiogenesis bioassays to serve for current and future reference.

Keywords: Angiogenesis; Aortic ring; Chorioallantoic membrane (CAM); Corneal angiogenesis; Endothelial cell migration; Hindlimb ischemia; Intussusceptive angiogenesis; Microfluidic; Myocardial angiogenesis; Plug assay; Proliferation; Recombinant proteins; Retinal vasculature; Tip cells; Vascular network; Vessel co-option; Zebrafish.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Assay / instrumentation
  • Biological Assay / methods*
  • Guidelines as Topic
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Neoplasms* / blood supply
  • Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic* / metabolism
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic* / pathology