Diosmetin, a plant flavonoid, has been shown to exert promising effects on prostate cancer cells as an anti‑proliferative and anticancer agent. In this study, using western blot analysis for protein expression and flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis, we determined that the treatment of the LNCaP and PC‑3 prostate cancer cells with diosmetin resulted in a marked decrease in cyclin D1, Cdk2 and Cdk4 expression levels (these proteins remain active in the G0‑G1 phases of the cell cycle). These changes were accompanied by a decrease in c-Myc and Bcl-2 expression, and by an increase in Bax, p27Kip1 and FOXO3a protein expression, which suggests the potential modulatory effects of diosmetin on protein transcription. The treatment of prostate cancer cells with diosmetin set in motion an apoptotic machinery by inhibiting X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and increasing cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 expression levels. On the whole, the findings of this study provide an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the regulatory effects of diosmetin on key molecules that perturb the cell cycle to inhibit cell growth, and suggest that diosmetin may prove to be an effective anticancer agent for use in the treatment of prostate cancer in the future.