Dietary Fiber Confers Protection against Flu by Shaping Ly6c - Patrolling Monocyte Hematopoiesis and CD8 + T Cell Metabolism

Immunity. 2018 May 15;48(5):992-1005.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.04.022.

Abstract

Dietary fiber protects against chronic inflammatory diseases by dampening immune responses through short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Here we examined the effect of dietary fiber in viral infection, where the anti-inflammatory properties of SCFAs in principle could prevent protective immunity. Instead, we found that fermentable dietary fiber increased survival of influenza-infected mice through two complementary mechanisms. High-fiber diet (HFD)-fed mice exhibited altered bone marrow hematopoiesis, characterized by enhanced generation of Ly6c- patrolling monocytes, which led to increased numbers of alternatively activated macrophages with a limited capacity to produce the chemokine CXCL1 in the airways. Blunted CXCL1 production reduced neutrophil recruitment to the airways, thus limiting tissue immunopathology during infection. In parallel, diet-derived SCFAs boosted CD8+ T cell effector function by enhancing cellular metabolism. Hence, dietary fermentable fiber and SCFAs set an immune equilibrium, balancing innate and adaptive immunity so as to promote the resolution of influenza infection while preventing immune-associated pathology.

Keywords: CD8(+) T cells; SCFA; fiber; hematopoiesis; influenza; metabolism; neutrophils; patrolling monocytes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity / drug effects
  • Adaptive Immunity / immunology
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Ly / immunology*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fiber / pharmacology*
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile / immunology
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile / metabolism
  • Hematopoiesis / drug effects
  • Hematopoiesis / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Monocytes / drug effects
  • Monocytes / immunology*
  • Monocytes / metabolism
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / immunology*
  • Protective Agents / administration & dosage
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology

Substances

  • Antigens, Ly
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile
  • Ly-6C antigen, mouse
  • Protective Agents