Mainstreaming implementation science into immunization systems in the decade of vaccines: A programmatic imperative for the African Region

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2018;14(10):2443-2446. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2018.1473682. Epub 2018 Jun 21.


Several innovations that can improve immunization systems already exist. Some interventions target service consumers within communities to raise awareness, build trust, improve understanding, remind caregivers, reward service users, and improve communication. Other interventions target health facilities to improve access and quality of vaccination services among others. Despite available empirical evidence, there is a delay in translating innovations into routine practice by immunization programmes. Drawing on an existing implementation science framework, we propose an interactive, and multi-perspective model to improve uptake and utilization of available immunization-related innovations in the African region. It is important to stress that our framework is by no means prescriptive. The key intention is to advocate for the entire immunization system to be viewed as an interconnected system of stakeholders, so as to foster better interaction, and proactive transfer of evidence-based innovation into policy and practice.

Keywords: Africa; evidence-based innovations; immunization; implementation science; vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Africa
  • Humans
  • Immunization / methods*
  • Immunization Programs / organization & administration*
  • Implementation Science*
  • Mainstreaming, Education / methods*
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines / immunology*


  • Vaccines

Grants and funding

The work of Abdu A. Adamu and Charles S. Wiysonge is supported by the South African Medical Research Council and the National Research Foundation of South Africa (Grant Number: 106035).