The expanding spectrum of paroxysmal movement disorders: update from clinical features to therapeutics

Curr Opin Neurol. 2018 Aug;31(4):491-497. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000576.


Purpose of review: This review will discuss the expanding clinical spectrum of paroxysmal movement disorders and therapeutic options in light of emerging genotypic heterogeneity in these conditions.

Recent findings: Paroxysmal movement disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of rare neurological conditions characterized by intermittent episodes of abnormal movement associated with various triggers. As the clinical and genotypic spectrum of these disorders evolves, so also has the range of therapeutic options. Triheptanoin has recently been shown to be a very promising alternative to the ketogenic diet in paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia. Four-aminopyridine is now considered first-line symptomatic therapy for episodic ataxia type-2, with pre-clinical findings indicating cerebellar neuroprotection.

Summary: In light of the newly emerging therapies, careful clinical phenotyping is needed to ensure diagnostic precision and timely initiation of appropriate therapies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chorea / pathology
  • Chorea / physiopathology
  • Chorea / therapy*
  • Dyskinesias
  • Humans