Inflammatory bowel disease has been associated with the dysregulation of T cells specific to Ags derived from the intestinal microbiota. How microbiota-specific T cells are regulated is not completely clear but is believed to be mediated by a combination of IgA, regulatory T cells, and type 3 innate lymphoid cells. To test the role of these regulatory components on microbiota-specific T cells, we bred CBir1 TCR transgenic (CBir1Tg) mice (specific to flagellin from common intestinal bacteria) onto a lymphopenic Rag1-/- background. Surprisingly, T cells from CBir1Tg mice bred onto a Rag1-/- background could not induce colitis and did not differentiate to become effectors under lymphopenic conditions, despite deficits in immunoregulatory factors, such as IgA, regulatory T cells, and type 3 innate lymphoid cells. In fact, upon transfer of conventional CBir1Tg T cells into lymphopenic mice, the vast majority of proliferating T cells responded to Ags other than CBir1 flagellin, including those found on other bacteria, such as Helicobacter spp. Thus, we discovered a caveat in the CBir1Tg model within our animal facility that illustrates the limitations of using TCR transgenics at mucosal surfaces, where multiple TCR specificities can respond to the plethora of foreign Ags. Our findings also indicate that T cell specificity to the microbiota alone is not sufficient to induce T cell activation and colitis. Instead, other interrelated factors, such as the composition and ecology of the intestinal microbiota and host access to Ag, are paramount in controlling the activation of microbiota-specific T cell clones.
Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.