Comparative analysis of 2 glenoid version measurement methods in variable axial slices on 3-dimensionally reconstructed computed tomography scans

J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2018 Oct;27(10):1809-1815. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2018.03.016. Epub 2018 May 31.


Background: Most glenoid version measurement methods have been validated on 3-dimensionally corrected axial computed tomography (CT) slices at the mid glenoid. Variability of the vault according to slice height and angulation has not yet been studied and is crucial for proper surgical implant positioning. The aim of this study was to analyze the variation of the glenoid vault compared with the Friedman angle according to different CT slice heights and angulations. The hypothesis was that the Friedman angle would show less variability.

Materials and methods: Sixty shoulder CT scans were retrieved from a hospital imaging database and were reconstructed in the plane of the scapula. Seven axial slices of different heights and coronal angulations were selected, and measurements were carried out by 3 observers.

Results: Mid-glenoid mean version was -8.0° (±4.9°; range, -19.6° to +7.0°) and -2.1° (±4.7°; range, -13.0° to +10.3°) using the vault method and Friedman angle, respectively. For both methods, decreasing slice height or angulation did not significantly alter version. Increasing slice height or angulation significantly increased anteversion for the vault method (P < .001). Both interobserver reliability and intraobserver reliability were significantly higher using the Friedman angle.

Conclusion: Version at the mid and lower glenoid is similar using either method. The vault method shows less reliability and more variability according to slice height or angulation. Yet, as it significantly differs from the Friedman angle, it should still be used in situations where maximum bone purchase is sought with glenoid implants. For any other situation, the Friedman angle remains the method of choice.

Keywords: CT scan; Friedman angle; Glenoid; axial slice; comparative analysis; vault; version.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Glenoid Cavity / diagnostic imaging*
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Observer Variation
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Scapula / diagnostic imaging
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*
  • Young Adult