Bisphenol A-Induced Endocrine Toxicity and Male Reprotoxicopathy are Modulated by the Dietary Iron Deficiency

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2018;18(6):626-636. doi: 10.2174/1871530318666180521095443.


Introduction: Bisphenol A (BPA) is suspected to cause hormonal imbalance in humans. Dietary factors are known to bring changes in hormonal profile. In order to study chemico-biological interaction of iron deficiency on toxicity outcome of BPA exposure, we studied the modulatory effects of iron deficiency on the hormone levels in rats chronically-exposed to BPA.

Methods: Weanling rats maintained on normal and iron-deficient diets were exposed to low level of BPA at 0, 1, 5 and 10 ppm for six months through drinking water. The serum levels of thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone, progesterone and estradiol were measured in the animals by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Histopathology was performed to check the pathological changes in gonads.

Results: No significant change was observed in TSH, progesterone and estradiol levels at 1 and 5 ppm BPA. However, at 10 ppm BPA a significant increase in TSH level was observed in the animals maintained on an iron-deficient diet of either sex. BPA caused a significant change in testosterone level even at 5 and 10 ppm doses in animals of either sex. However, in male rats 1 ppm dose also showed a significant effect in the animals maintained on iron deficient diet. Changes in the histoarchitecture of the testes at high dose of BPA (10 ppm) were more remarkable in anemic rats.

Conclusion: These results suggest that iron deficiency has no generalized effect on hormonal levels in BPA-treated animals and trends indicate a more remarkable effect in male animals at hormonal and tissue levels.

Keywords: Endocrine disrupting chemicals; bisphenol A; confounding factor; histological injury; hormonal imbalance; iron deficiency anemia..

MeSH terms

  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / blood*
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / diagnosis
  • Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / pathology
  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / toxicity*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Endocrine Disruptors / toxicity*
  • Estradiol / blood
  • Female
  • Hormones / blood*
  • Male
  • Ovary / drug effects
  • Ovary / metabolism
  • Ovary / pathology
  • Phenols / toxicity*
  • Progesterone / blood
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Sex Factors
  • Testis / drug effects*
  • Testis / metabolism
  • Testis / pathology
  • Testosterone / blood
  • Thyrotropin / blood
  • Time Factors
  • Weaning


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Hormones
  • Phenols
  • Testosterone
  • Progesterone
  • Estradiol
  • Thyrotropin
  • bisphenol A