Objectives: Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy is an increasingly popular treatment for acute kidney injury in critically ill patients that runs at different flow rates and durations than conventional hemodialysis or continuous renal replacement therapies. Pharmacokinetic studies conducted in patients receiving prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy are scarce; consequently, clinicians are challenged to dose antibiotics effectively. The purpose of this study was to develop vancomycin dosing recommendations for patients receiving prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy.
Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed in thousands of virtual patients derived from previously published demographic, pharmacokinetic, and dialytic information derived from critically ill patients receiving vancomycin and other forms of renal replacement therapy. We conducted "in silico" vancomycin pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics analyses in these patients receiving prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy to determine what vancomycin dose would achieve vancomycin 24-h area under the curve (AUC24h) of 400-700 mg·h/L, a target associated with positive clinical outcomes. Nine different vancomycin dosing regimens were tested using four different, commonly used prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy modalities. A dosing nomogram based on serum concentration data achieved after the third dose was developed to individualize vancomycin therapy.
Results: An initial vancomycin dose of 15 or 20 mg/kg immediately followed by 15 mg/kg after subsequent prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy treatments achieved AUC24h of ≥400 mg·h/L for ≥90% of patients regardless of prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy duration, modality, or time of vancomycin dose relative to prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy. Many patients experienced AUC24h of ≥700 mg·h/L, but once the dosing nomogram was applied to serum concentrations obtained after the third vancomycin dose, 67%-88% of patients achieved AUC24h of 400-700 mg·h/L.
Conclusion: An initial loading dose of 15-20 mg/kg followed by a maintenance regimen of 15 mg/kg after every prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy session coupled with serum concentration monitoring should be used to individualize vancomycin dosing. These predictions need clinical verification.
Keywords: Renal failure; dialysis; kidney failure; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics; vancomycin.