In recent decades, breast cancer has become largely manageable due to successes with hormone receptor targeting. Hormone receptor-positive tumors have favorable outcomes in comparison to estrogen receptor (ESR1, ER)/progesterone receptor-negative tumors given the targetable nature of these tumors, as well as their inherently less aggressive character. Nonetheless, treatment resistance is frequently encountered due to a variety of mechanisms, including ESR1 mutations and loss of ER expression. A new era of precision medicine utilizes a range of methodologies to allow real-time analysis of individual genomic signatures in metastases and liquid biopsies with the goal of finding clinically actionable targets. Preliminary studies have shown improved progression-free survival and overall survival with implementation of this information for clinical decision making. In this review, we will discuss the opportunities and challenges in integrating precision medicine through next-generation genomic sequencing into the management of breast cancer.
Keywords: circulating tumor DNA; circulating tumor cells; hormone receptor-positive breast cancer; liquid biopsy; personalized medicine.