Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type-1 diabetes; however, donor shortage is a concern. Even when a pancreas is available, low islet yield limits the success of transplantation. Islet culture enables pooling of multiple low-yield isolations into an effective islet mass, but isolated islets rapidly deteriorate under conventional culture conditions. Oxygen (O2) depletion in the islet core, which leads to central necrosis and volume loss, is one of the major reasons for this deterioration.
Methods: To promote long-term culture of human islets in PIM-R medium (used for islet research), we adjusted temperature (12°C, 22°C, and 37°C) and O2 concentration (21% and 50%). We simulated the O2 distribution in islets based on islet O2 consumption rate and dissolved O2 in the medium. We determined the optimal conditions for O2 distribution and volume maintenance in a 2-week culture and assessed viability and insulin secretion compared to noncultured islets. In vivo islet engraftment was assessed by transplantation into diabetic nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency mouse kidneys. We validated our results using CMRL 1066 medium (used for clinical islet transplantation).
Results: Simulation revealed that 12°C of 50% O2 PIM-R culture supplied O2 effectively into the islet core. This condition maintained islet volume at greater than 90% for 2 weeks. There were no significant differences in viability and function in vitro or diabetic reversal rate in vivo between 2-week cultured and noncultured islets. Similar results were obtained using CMRL 1066.
Conclusions: By optimizing temperature and O2 concentration, we cultured human islets for 2 weeks with minimal loss of volume and function.