Adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) with the Adacolumn® is an extracorporeal treatment, which uses cellulose acetate (CA) beads as adsorptive leukocytapheresis carriers designed to remove elevated and potentially activated myeloid lineage leukocytes. Reports on the clinical efficacy of GMA in patients with skin lesions have appeared in the published work. Dermatological diseases, which are known to respond to GMA, include pyoderma gangrenosum, skin lesions of Behçet's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, pustular psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, adult-onset Still's disease, Sweet's syndrome, cutaneous allergic vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus rashes. In association with clinical studies, efforts to understand the mechanisms of GMA have made significant progress. GMA selectively depletes elevated myeloid lineage leukocytes through binding between blood immunoglobulin G or complement iC3b, which form on the surface of CA beads and the Fcγ receptors or complement receptors expressed on the myeloid lineage cells. However, GMA has immunomodulatory effects including down-modulation of inflammatory cytokine profile, changes in leukocyte surface receptors and induction of regulatory T cells. These actions render GMA a unique non-pharmacological treatment option for patients with chronic dermatoid conditions, which are difficult to treat with pharmacological preparations.
Keywords: granulocyte and monocyte apheresis; iC3b; inflammatory cytokines; myeloid lineage leukocyte; myeloid-derived suppressor cell.
© 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.