Effects of Fermented Milk Treatment on Microbial Population and Metabolomic Outcomes in a Three-Stage Semi-Continuous Culture System

Food Chem. 2018 Oct 15;263:216-224. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.095. Epub 2018 Apr 23.


We investigated the impact of a fermented milk product on gut microbiota and their metabolism in 3 different conditions of the colon with a systemic viewpoint. An in vitro semi-continuous anaerobic cultivation was used to assess the colon compartment-specific influence of fermented milk, followed by a multiomics approach combining 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The microbiome profiling and metabolomic features were significantly different across three colon compartments and after fermented milk treatment. Integrative correlation analysis indicated that the alteration of butyrate-producing microbiota (Veillonella, Roseburia, Lachnospira, and Coprococcus) and some primary metabolites (butyrate, ethanol, lactate, and isobutyrate) in the treatment group had a strong association with the fermented milk microorganisms. Our findings suggested that fermented milk treatment significantly affected microbial population in an in vitro cultivation system as well as the colonic metabolome in different ways in each of colon compartment.

Keywords: Fermented milk; Gut microbiota; In vitro colon simulation; MiSeq; NMR-based metabolomics.

MeSH terms

  • Anaerobiosis
  • Butyrates / metabolism
  • Colon / metabolism
  • Colon / microbiology*
  • Culture Techniques / methods
  • Cultured Milk Products* / microbiology
  • DNA, Ribosomal
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Male
  • Metabolome
  • Metabolomics / methods
  • Young Adult


  • Butyrates
  • DNA, Ribosomal