Protein composition at the plasma membrane is tightly regulated, with rapid protein internalization and selective targeting to the cell surface occurring in response to environmental changes. For example, ion channels are dynamically relocalized to or from the plasma membrane in response to physiological alterations, allowing cells and organisms to maintain osmotic and salt homeostasis. To identify additional factors that regulate the selective trafficking of a specific ion channel, we used a yeast model for a mammalian potassium channel, the K+ inward rectifying channel Kir2.1. Kir2.1 maintains potassium homeostasis in heart muscle cells, and Kir2.1 defects lead to human disease. By examining the ability of Kir2.1 to rescue the growth of yeast cells lacking endogenous potassium channels, we discovered that specific α-arrestins regulate Kir2.1 localization. Specifically, we found that the Ldb19/Art1, Aly1/Art6, and Aly2/Art3 α-arrestin adaptor proteins promote Kir2.1 trafficking to the cell surface, increase Kir2.1 activity at the plasma membrane, and raise intracellular potassium levels. To better quantify the intracellular and cell-surface populations of Kir2.1, we created fluorogen-activating protein fusions and for the first time used this technique to measure the cell-surface residency of a plasma membrane protein in yeast. Our experiments revealed that two α-arrestin effectors also control Kir2.1 localization. In particular, both the Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase and the protein phosphatase calcineurin facilitated the α-arrestin-mediated trafficking of Kir2.1. Together, our findings implicate α-arrestins in regulating an additional class of plasma membrane proteins and establish a new tool for dissecting the trafficking itinerary of any membrane protein in yeast.
Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; arrestin; calcineurin; endocytosis; inward rectifying channel; protein adaptor; protein quality control; protein trafficking (Golgi); ubiquitin ligase; vacuole; yeast.
© 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.