Greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) is distributed in tropical and temperate waters worldwide and is an important aquaculture fish. We carried out de novo sequencing of the greater amberjack genome to construct a reference genome sequence to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for breeding amberjack by marker-assisted or gene-assisted selection as well as to identify functional genes for biological traits. We obtained 200 times coverage and constructed a high-quality genome assembly using next generation sequencing technology. The assembled sequences were aligned onto a yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) radiation hybrid (RH) physical map by sequence homology. A total of 215 of the longest amberjack sequences, with a total length of 622.8 Mbp (92% of the total length of the genome scaffolds), were lined up on the yellowtail RH map. We resequenced the whole genomes of 20 greater amberjacks and mapped the resulting sequences onto the reference genome sequence. About 186,000 nonredundant SNPs were successfully ordered on the reference genome. Further, we found differences in the genome structural variations between two greater amberjack populations using BreakDancer. We also analyzed the greater amberjack transcriptome and mapped the annotated sequences onto the reference genome sequence.