Peri-implant soft tissue status and crestal bone levels around adjacent implants placed in patients with and without type-2 diabetes mellitus: 6 years follow-up results

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res. 2018 Aug;20(4):562-568. doi: 10.1111/cid.12617. Epub 2018 May 22.


Background: The long-term success and survival of dental implants type-2 diabetic subjects is debatable.

Purpose: The present 6 years' follow-up prospective clinical study compared the peri-implant soft tissue status and crestal bone loss (CBL) around adjacent implants placed among type-2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects.

Materials and methods: Type-2 diabetic (Group-1) and nondiabetic individuals (Group-2) with adjacent dental implants were included. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were recorded; and a questionnaire was used to collect demographic information. Information regarding implant dimensions, duration in function, loading protocol, and type of restoration was recorded. Peri-implant bleeding-on-probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), and mesial and distal CBL were measured. P < .05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Eighty-six male participants (44 in Group-1 and 42 in Group-2) were included. The mean age of individuals in groups 1 and 2 were 57.6 ± 5.5 and 61.6 ± 4.3 years, respectively. In Group-1, the mean duration of type-2 diabetes was 10.1 ± 3.5 years. A family history of diabetes was more often reported by individuals in Group-1 than Group-2. In groups 1 and 2, 44 and 42 pairs of adjacent implants, respectively were placed in the regions of missing premolars and molars in both arches. All implants were delayed loaded and were fixed with non-splinted screw-retained restorations. In groups 1 and 2, tooth-brushing twice daily was reported by 79.5% and 85.7% individuals, respectively. There was no difference in peri-implant PI, BOP, PD, mesial and distal CBL and HbA1c levels among individuals in groups 1 and 2.

Conclusion: Adjacent implants can remain esthetically and functionally stable in type 2 diabetic patients in a manner similar to healthy individuals provided glycemic levels are strictly controlled and maintained.

Keywords: alveolar bone loss; dental implant; diabetes mellitus; gingival bleeding; probing depth.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / etiology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Implant-Abutment Design
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontal Index*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Saudi Arabia


  • Dental Implants
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human