Background: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered the only curative therapy for very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease with specific immune defects, such as interleukin-10 receptor deficiency. We performed reduced-intensity conditioning before umbilical cord blood transplantation in patients with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency.
Methods: We enrolled 9 very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease patients with typical manifestations. We diagnosed the patients with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency by whole-exome sequencing. Umbilical cord blood transplantation was performed in all 9 patients. Eight patients received the reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, and 1 patient received the myeloablative conditioning regimen.
Results: All 9 patients received transplantation between the ages of 6 months to 43 months (average, 16.8 months) with body weights ranging from 3 to 10.4 kg (average, 6.6 kg). The patients displayed complete chimerism at 2-8 weeks after transplantation; 6 patients achieved complete remission without evidence of graft-vs-host disease or infections; 1 patient died of chronic lung graft-vs-host disease at 6 months post-transplantation; and the other 2 patients died of sepsis post-transplantation because of unsuccessful engraftments. Severe malnutrition and growth retardation associated with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency were significantly improved post-transplantation.
Conclusions: We recommend umbilical cord blood transplantation as a potential treatment for very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease with a defined monogenic immunodeficiency, and we suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning chemotherapy is more suitable than myeloablative conditioning for patients with severe malnutrition and bowel disease. We have demonstrated success with reduced-intensity conditioning for interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency in pediatric patients with severe clinical conditions. 10.1093/ibd/izy028_video1izy028.video15786489183001.