Background: GSK2256098 is a novel oral focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor. Preclinical studies demonstrate growth inhibition in glioblastoma cell lines. However, rodent studies indicate limited blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. In this expansion cohort within a phase I study, the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and clinical activity of GSK2256098 were evaluated in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Biodistribution and kinetics of [11C]GSK2256098 were assessed in a substudy using positron-emission tomography (PET).
Methods: Patients were treated with GSK2256098 until disease progression or withdrawal due to adverse events (AEs). Serial PK samples were collected on day 1. On a single day between days 9 and 20, patients received a microdose of intravenous [11C]GSK2256098 and were scanned with PET over 90 minutes with parallel PK sample collection. Response was assessed by MRI every 6 weeks.
Results: Thirteen patients were treated in 3 dose cohorts (1000 mg, 750 mg, 500 mg; all dosed twice daily). The maximum tolerated dose was 1000 mg twice daily. Dose-limiting toxicities were related to cerebral edema. Treatment-related AEs (>25%) were diarrhea, fatigue, and nausea. Eight patients participated in the PET substudy, with [11C]GSK2256098 VT (volume of distribution) estimates of 0.9 in tumor tissue, 0.5 in surrounding T2 enhancing areas, and 0.4 in normal brain. Best response of stable disease was observed in 3 patients, including 1 patient on treatment for 11.3 months.
Conclusions: GSK2256098 was tolerable in patients with relapsed glioblastoma. GSK2256098 crossed the BBB at low levels into normal brain, but at markedly higher levels into tumor, consistent with tumor-associated BBB disruption. Additional clinical trials of GSK2256098 are ongoing.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01138033.