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. 2018 Jun 1;89(6):520-525.
doi: 10.3357/AMHP.5010.2018.

Acute Exposure to Low-to-Moderate Carbon Dioxide Levels and Submariner Decision Making

Acute Exposure to Low-to-Moderate Carbon Dioxide Levels and Submariner Decision Making

Christopher D Rodeheffer et al. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. .

Erratum in

  • Erratum.
    Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018 Jul 1;89(7):667. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018. PMID: 29921361 No abstract available.


Background: Submarines routinely operate with higher levels of ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., 2000 - 5000 ppm) than what is typically considered normal (i.e., 400 - 600 ppm). Although significant cognitive impairments are rarely reported at these elevated CO2 levels, recent studies using the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) test have found impairments in decision-making performance during acute CO2 exposure at levels as low as 1000 ppm. This is a potential concern for submarine operations, as personnel regularly make mission-critical decisions that affect the safety and efficiency of the vessel and its crew while exposed to similar levels of CO2. The objective of this study was to determine if submariner decision-making performance is impacted by acute exposure to levels of CO2 routinely present in the submarine atmosphere during sea patrols.

Methods: Using a subject-blinded balanced design, 36 submarine-qualified sailors were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 CO2 exposure conditions (600, 2500, or 15,000 ppm). After a 45-min atmospheric acclimation period, participants completed an 80-min computer-administered SMS test as a measure of decision making.

Results: There were no significant differences for any of the nine SMS measures of decision making between the CO2 exposure conditions.

Discussion: In contrast to recent research demonstrating cognitive deficits on the SMS test in students and professional-grade office workers, we were unable to replicate this effect in a submariner population-even with acute CO2 exposures more than an order of magnitude greater than those used in previous studies that demonstrated such effects.Rodeheffer CD, Chabal S, Clarke JM, Fothergill DM. Acute exposure to low-to-moderate carbon dioxide levels and submariner decision making. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):520-525.

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