Trends in linoleic acid intake in the United States adult population: NHANES 1999-2014

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2018 Jun;133:23-28. doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2018.04.006. Epub 2018 May 2.


Linoleic acid (LA), the primary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the US diet, is an essential fatty acid. LA is available from a wide variety of foods, although it is primarily sourced from plant seed oils. Individual-level data on demography and food and nutrient intake were acquired from the NHANES waves 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014. Mean daily intake of (LA) was estimated for each survey wave overall, and by age, gender, educational attainment, race/ethnicity, and income-to-poverty ratio. Linear temporal (1999-2014) trends in LA intake were estimated using univariate linear regression tests, with P < 0.05 and a two-tailed distribution. We found that US adults meet intake recommendation for LA and observed a trend of increasing intake of LA in the US overall and by sub-categories of age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, and income-to-poverty ratio.

Keywords: Linoleic acid; NHANES; WWEIA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Diet / trends
  • Educational Status
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Income / statistics & numerical data
  • Linoleic Acids / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys / statistics & numerical data*
  • United States
  • Young Adult


  • Linoleic Acids