Nanotherapeutics: An Insight Into Healthcare and Multi-Dimensional Applications in Medical Sector of the Modern World

Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jan;97:1521-1537. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.11.026. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Abstract

In recent years nanotechnology has revolutionized the healthcare strategies and envisioned to have a tremendous impact to offer better health facilities. In this context, medical nanotechnology involves design, fabrication, regulation, and application of therapeutic drugs and devices having a size in nano-range (1-100 nm). Owing to the revolutionary implications in drug delivery and gene therapy, nanotherapeutics has gained increasing research interest in the current medical sector of the modern world. The areas which anticipate benefits from nano-based drug delivery systems are cancer, diabetes, infectious diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, blood disorders and orthopedic problems. The development of nanotherapeutics with multi-functionalities has considerable potential to fill the lacunae existing in the present therapeutic domain. Nanomedicines in the field of cancer management have enhanced permeability and retention of drugs thereby effectively targeting the affected tissues. Polymeric conjugates of asparaginase, polymeric micelles of paclitaxel have been recmended for various types of cancer treatment .The advancement of nano therapeutics and diagnostics can provide the improved effectiveness of the drug with less or no toxicity concerns. Similarly, diagnostic imaging is having potential future applications with newer imaging elements at nano level. The newly emerging field of nanorobotics can provide new directions in the field of healthcare. In this article, an attempt has been made to highlight the novel nanotherapeutic potentialities of polymeric nanoparticles, nanoemulsion, solid lipid nanoparticle, nanostructured lipid carriers, dendrimers, nanocapsules and nanosponges based approaches. The useful applications of these nano-medicines in the field of cancer, nutrition, and health have been discussed in details. Regulatory and safety concerns along with the commercial status of nanosystems have also been presented. In summary, a successful translation of emerging nanotherapeutics into commercial products may lead to an expansion of biomedical science. Towards the end of the review, future perspectives of this important field have been introduced briefly.

Keywords: Biomedical Applications; Cancer; Drug delivery; Health; Nanocarriers; Nanomedicines; Nanoparticles; Nanotherapeutics; Regulatory issues; Safety concerns; Tissue engineering.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biosensing Techniques
  • Delivery of Health Care*
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Humans
  • Nanomedicine*
  • Nanoparticles / adverse effects
  • Nanoparticles / toxicity
  • Tissue Engineering