The Immunoimaging Toolbox

J Nucl Med. 2018 Aug;59(8):1174-1182. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.116.185967. Epub 2018 May 24.


The recent clinical success of cancer immunotherapy has renewed interest in the development of tools to image the immune system. In general, immunotherapies attempt to enable the body's own immune cells to seek out and destroy malignant disease. Molecular imaging of the cells and molecules that regulate immunity could provide unique insight into the mechanisms of action, and failure, of immunotherapies. In this article, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art immunoimaging toolbox with a focus on imaging strategies and their applications toward immunotherapy.

Keywords: cell tracking; immune imaging; immunotherapy; molecular imaging; oncology; radioimmunoimaging.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Immunity
  • Immunotherapy
  • Molecular Imaging / methods*
  • Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Neoplasms / therapy