Purpose of review: To identify and evaluate the recent trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 and 2 (SGLT1 and SGLT2, respectively) inhibitor use in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). SGLT-2 inhibitors have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are effectively used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, many studies (phase I-III) have validated their effects beyond improving glycemic control and have shown potential adjunctive use in adult patients with T1D treated with insulin therapy alone.
Recent findings: A review of the literature showed that there is a potential adjunctive role for the SGLT inhibitors with insulin in T1D for improving glycemic control. The inTandem3 (A phase III study to evaluate the safety of sotagliflozin in patients with type 1 diabetes who have inadequate glycemic control with insulin therapy alone) and the DEPICT-1 (Dapagliflozin evaluation in patients with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes) trials demonstrated significant benefits in adult patients with T1D. The SGLT inhibitors may become the first oral medication to be approved for adjunctive use in T1D.
Summary: The risk of diabetic ketoacidosis still remains a concern, but considering additional benefits beyond glucose control, with proper counseling and education, these medications may allow a larger number of patients to achieve target glucose control without weight gain or increased risk of hypoglycemia.