Learning objectives: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Identify skeletal differences that are treated with orthognathic surgery; describe the goals of orthognathic surgery; and understand modern virtual surgical planning of orthognathic movement of the mandible, maxilla, and chin. 2. Appreciate the surgical principles of maxilla- versus mandible-first surgery, and orthognathic surgery before orthodontic correction; and understand when an osseous genioplasty may be beneficial, and the potency of this bony movement. 3. Appreciate the utility of fat grafting as an adjunct to orthognathic bony movements, and demonstrate understanding of the utility of orthognathic surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. 4. Be aware of associated complications and be able to critically assess outcomes following orthognathic surgery.
Summary: This CME article outlines the goals of orthognathic surgery, highlighting advances in the field and current controversies. The principles of the sequencing of osteotomies are discussed and literature is reviewed that may assist in decision-making as to maxilla-first versus mandible-first surgery. The emergence of "surgery first," in which surgery precedes orthodontics, is discussed and important parameters for patient candidacy for such a procedure are provided. The emerging standard of virtual surgical planning is described, and a video is provided that walks the reader through a planning session. Soft-tissue considerations are highlighted, especially in the context of osseous genioplasty and fat grafting to the face. The utility of orthognathic surgery in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is discussed. The reader is provided with the most current data on complications following orthognathic surgery and advice on avoiding such pitfalls. Finally, outcome assessment focusing on the most current trend of patient-reported satisfaction and the psychological impact of orthognathic surgery are discussed.