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, 122 (2), 150-171

Out of Africa: Demographic and Colonization History of the Algerian Mouse (Mus Spretus Lataste)

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Out of Africa: Demographic and Colonization History of the Algerian Mouse (Mus Spretus Lataste)

Aude Lalis et al. Heredity (Edinb).

Abstract

North Africa is now recognized as a major area for the emergence and dispersal of anatomically modern humans from at least 315 kya. The Mediterranean Basin is thus particularly suited to study the role of climate versus human-mediated changes on the evolutionary history of species. The Algerian mouse (Mus spretus Lataste) is an endemic species from this basin, with its distribution restricted to North Africa (from Libya to Morocco), Iberian Peninsula and South of France. A rich paleontological record of M. spretus exists in North Africa, suggesting hypotheses concerning colonization pathways, and the demographic and morphologic history of this species. Here we combined genetic (3 mitochondrial DNA loci and 18 microsatellites) and climatic niche modeling data to infer the evolutionary history of the Algerian mouse. We collected 646 new individuals in 51 localities. Our results are consistent with an anthropogenic translocation of the Algerian mouse from North Africa to the Iberian Peninsula via Neolithic navigators, probably from the Tingitane Peninsula. Once arrived in Spain, suitable climatic conditions would then have favored the dispersion of the Algerian mice to France. The morphological differentiation observed between Spanish, French and North African populations could be explained by a founder effect and possibly local adaptation. This article helps to better understand the role of climate versus human-mediated changes on the evolutionary history of mammal species in the Mediterranean Basin.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Map of sampling localities and the names of the main geographical features discussed in the text. For locality names, see Table 1. Gray areas indicate mountains higher than 1000 m
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Minimum spanning networks of M. spretus obtained for the three mtDNA regions concatenated. Circle sizes are proportional to the number of similar haplotypes observed in the dataset. Branch lengths are proportional to the number of mutations between haplotypes. Colors represent the country of sampling (red = Portugal; blue = France; pink = Spain; yellow = Morocco; green = Algeria)
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
a Bayesian clustering analyses of M. spretus populations genotyped with 18 microsatellite loci. Clustering was performed in STRUCTURE. Each vertical line represents an individual, and each color represents a cluster (in blue: France; in pink: Madrid—Cherouda—Tetouan; in green: Algerian populations and Ifrane, and in yellow: the others Moroccan populations). Individuals are grouped by sampling location (locality number as in Table 1). b Discriminant analysis of principal components (axis 1 and 2). The axes represent the first two discriminant functions (DA) respectively. Individuals (dots) and populations (colored ellipses) are plotted within the orthogonal space defined by the first two 2 DA eigenvalues (inserts). c Neighbor-joining tree based on Reynold’s distance. Bootstrap values are calculated over 1000 replicates. For b, c, each color represents a cluster: in blue: France; in pink: Madrid; in purple: Moroccan populations Cherouda and Tetouan; in green: Algeria and in yellow: others Moroccan populations
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Extended Bayesian skyline plot (mtDNA) computed in Africa, France and Spain. X axis: times in years; y axis: effective population size. Median values are shown in black, 95% high posterior density in red
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Species distribution modeling of M. spretus as estimated by Maxent for present day conditions (actual), for the last glacial maximum (LGM) and for the mid-Holocene. For paleoclimatic data, estimates are based on the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) and on the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) paleoclimatic models. Warmer colors show areas with higher probability of presence

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