Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis diagnosis and treatment algorithm 2018

Blood Cancer J. 2018 May 23;8(5):44. doi: 10.1038/s41408-018-0080-9.


Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) should be considered in any patient that presents to a cancer care provider with nephrotic range proteinuria, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, non-diabetic peripheral neuropathy, unexplained hepatomegaly or diarrhea. More importantly, patients being monitored for smoldering multiple myeloma and a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are at risk for developing AL amyloidosis. MGUS and myeloma patients that have atypical features, including unexplained weight loss; lower extremity edema, early satiety, and dyspnea on exertion should be considered at risk for light chain amyloidosis. Overlooking the diagnosis of light chain amyloidosis leading to therapy delay is common, and it represents an error of diagnostic consideration. Algorithms will be provided on how to evaluate patients with suspected AL amyloid as well as how to manage patients referred from other medical specialties with biopsy-proven amyloid. An organized stepwise approach to the treatment of patients with light chain amyloidosis, including established and investigational therapies, will be reviewed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Algorithms
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological / therapeutic use
  • Biopsy
  • Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic / therapeutic use
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Disease Management
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis / diagnosis*
  • Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis / therapy*
  • Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / diagnosis
  • Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance / surgery
  • Organ Transplantation
  • Prealbumin / genetics
  • Prealbumin / metabolism
  • Proteasome Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Sulfonamides / therapeutic use


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
  • Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Prealbumin
  • Proteasome Inhibitors
  • Sulfonamides
  • TTR protein, human
  • venetoclax