Hepatitis D caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a serious health problem in many regions of the world. A total of 546 HBV-infected patients were enrolled from 2013 to 2015 and classified clinically into the subgroups of chronic hepatitis B (CHB, n = 191), liver cirrhosis (LC, n = 147) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 208). The patients were screened for HDV-RNA by nested PCR assays. HDV genotypes were assessed by direct sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analysis. HDV-RNA was identified in 13% (71/546) of HBV-infected patients. The highest HDV prevalence was found in the LC group (19.7%), followed by the HCC (12%) and CHB (8.9%) groups (P = 0.017). HDV/HBV coinfections were significantly associated with a rather unfavourable clinical outcome, in particular with LC development compared to HBV monoinfection. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the genotype HDV1 was, with a prevalence of 91%, by far the most common genotype in Vietnam, followed by HDV2 with 9%. Other HDV genotypes were not observed. In accordance with previous data obtained a decade ago, our results confirm a continuing high prevalence of HDV infection in hepatitis B patients in northern Vietnam with the HDV1 genotype still being the predominant genotype. HDV nucleic acid testing to minimize the associated risk should be considered.