HPLC analysis of bile obtained from rats given aflatoxin B1 (AFB) demonstrates the presence of numerous polar metabolites. The glutathione conjugate derived from AFB 8,9-epoxide and the glucuronide conjugate of aflatoxin P1 (AFP) have previously been identified as the two major polar metabolites. The most polar peak present in bile from AFB-treated rats is converted to a less polar peak upon incubation with beta-glucuronidase, which has a parent ion m/e of 314 amu. Treatment of this aglycon with diazomethane produced a product which cochromatographs with aflatoxin M1 (AFM). From these data it is concluded that the most polar peak in bile from AFB-treated rats is the glucuronide conjugate of 4,9a-dihydroxyaflatoxin B1. This dihydroxy AFB metabolite was produced in vitro in mouse microsomal incubations, and time-course studies of its production suggest that it is largely formed by 9a-hydroxylation of AFP, although some may be formed by 4-O-demethylation of AFM. Direct incubation of AFP and AFM with mouse microsomes confirmed that this metabolite can be formed from both AFP and AFM. An HPLC method is described which is capable of base line resolution of this novel dihydroxyaflatoxin metabolite and eight other hydroxylated metabolites of AFB, as well as the glutathione conjugate of AFB 8,9-epoxide.