Nutritional treatment of advanced CKD: twenty consensus statements

J Nephrol. 2018 Aug;31(4):457-473. doi: 10.1007/s40620-018-0497-z. Epub 2018 May 24.


The Italian nephrology has a long tradition and experience in the field of dietetic-nutritional therapy (DNT), which is an important component in the conservative management of the patient suffering from a chronic kidney disease, which precedes and integrates the pharmacological therapies. The objectives of DNT include the maintenance of an optimal nutritional status, the prevention and/or correction of signs, symptoms and complications of chronic renal failure and, possibly, the delay in starting of dialysis. The DNT includes modulation of protein intake, adequacy of caloric intake, control of sodium and potassium intake, and reduction of phosphorus intake. For all dietary-nutritional therapies, and in particular those aimed at the patient with chronic renal failure, the problem of patient adherence to the dietetic-nutritional scheme is a key element for the success and safety of the DNT and it can be favored by an interdisciplinary and multi-professional approach of information, education, dietary prescription and follow-up. This consensus document, which defines twenty essential points of the nutritional approach to patients with advanced chronic renal failure, has been written, discussed and shared by the Italian nephrologists together with representatives of dietitians (ANDID) and patients (ANED).

Keywords: CKD; Chronic renal failure; Dialysis; Diet; Kidney transplant; Nutritional treatment.

Publication types

  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Contraindications
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Dysbiosis / etiology
  • Energy Intake*
  • Humans
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Patient Care Team
  • Patient Compliance
  • Patient Education as Topic
  • Phosphorus, Dietary / administration & dosage*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / diet therapy*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / therapy
  • Renal Replacement Therapy
  • Sodium, Dietary / administration & dosage*


  • Dietary Fiber
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Phosphorus, Dietary
  • Sodium, Dietary