Advanced glycation end products-induced insulin resistance involves repression of skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression

Sci Rep. 2018 May 25;8(1):8109. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-26482-6.


Little is known about advanced glycation end products (AGEs) participation in glucose homeostasis, a process in which skeletal muscle glucose transporter GLUT4 (Scl2a4 gene) plays a key role. This study investigated (1) the in vivo and in vitro effects of AGEs on Slc2a4/GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle of healthy rats, and (2) the potential involvement of endoplasmic reticulum and inflammatory stress in the observed regulations. For in vivo analysis, rats were treated with advanced glycated rat albumin (AGE-albumin) for 12 weeks; for in vitro analysis, soleus muscles from normal rats were incubated with bovine AGE-albumin for 2.5 to 7.5 hours. In vivo, AGE-albumin induced whole-body insulin resistance; decreased (~30%) Slc2a4 mRNA and GLUT4 protein content; and increased (~30%) the nuclear content of nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p50 subunit (NFKB1), and cellular content of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78). In vitro, incubation with AGE-albumin decreased (~50%) the Slc2a4/GLUT4 content; and increased cellular content of GRP78/94, phosphorylated-IKK-alpha/beta, nuclear content of NFKB1 and RELA, and the nuclear protein binding into Slc2a4 promoter NFKB-binding site. The data reveal that AGEs impair glucose homeostasis in non-diabetic states of increased AGEs concentration; an effect that involves activation of endoplasmic reticulum- and inflammatory-stress and repression of Slc2a4/GLUT4 expression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / drug effects
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glucose Transporter Type 4 / genetics*
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / pharmacology*
  • Homeostasis / drug effects
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Male
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Biomarkers
  • Glucose Transporter Type 4
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • NF-kappa B
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Glucose