Accumulation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Subclinical Inflammation in Deep Tissues of Adult Patients With and Without Diabetes

Can J Diabetes. 2018 Oct;42(5):525-532.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jcjd.2018.01.003. Epub 2018 Jan 10.


Objectives: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) play a key role in the development of foot complications in people with diabetes. Skin autofluorescence (AF) might noninvasively determine tissue accumulation of AGEs. This study evaluated the association between skin AF and AGE contents in the deep tissues of those with diabetes and the further consequences of such contents.

Methods: Between September 2014 and September 2015, we studied 33 patients, with and without diabetes, who had received lower-limb amputations. Skin AF was measured. Artery, nerve and skin were harvested during surgery. AGE contents were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and were located by immunohistochemistry staining. Inflammatory cells were also located by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy.

Results: Values of skin AF and AGE contents in artery, nerve and skin in patients with diabetes were higher than those in healthy patients. Skin AF was strongly affected by AGE contents in these tissues. AGE contents in various tissues were strongly correlated with each other. Differing AGEs were deposited in similar manners in the same tissues and were accompanied by inflammatory cells.

Conclusions: AGE contents were strongly correlated with each other and were accompanied by inflammatory cells. Skin AF measurement could provide information about the systemic accumulation of AGEs.

Keywords: advanced glycation endproducts; autofluorescence cutanée; diabetic subclinical inflammation; inflammation subclinique chez les diabétiques; produits terminaux de la glycation avancée; skin autofluorescence.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arteries / chemistry
  • Arteries / metabolism
  • Arteries / pathology
  • Asymptomatic Diseases
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnostic imaging
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / pathology
  • Female
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / analysis
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / metabolism*
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Male
  • Nerve Fibers / chemistry
  • Nerve Fibers / metabolism
  • Nerve Fibers / pathology
  • Optical Imaging
  • Skin / chemistry
  • Skin / diagnostic imaging
  • Skin / metabolism*
  • Skin / pathology*
  • Tissue Extracts / chemistry
  • Tissue Extracts / metabolism*


  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Tissue Extracts