Macrophages are central in orchestrating the clearance of apoptotic cells and cellular debris during inflammation, with the mechanism(s) regulating this process remaining of interest. Herein, we found that the n-3 docosapentaenoic acid-derived protectin (PDn-3 DPA) biosynthetic pathway regulated the differentiation of human monocytes, altering macrophage phenotype, efferocytosis, and bacterial phagocytosis. Using lipid mediator profiling, human primary cells and recombinant enzymes we found that human 15-lipoxygenases initiate the PDn-3 DPA pathway catalyzing the formation of an allylic epoxide. The complete stereochemistry of this epoxide was determined using stereocontrolled total organic synthesis as 16S,17S-epoxy-7Z,10Z,12E,14E,19Z-docosapentaenoic acid (16S,17S-ePDn-3 DPA). This intermediate was enzymatically converted by epoxide hydrolases to PD1n-3 DPA and PD2n-3 DPA, with epoxide hydrolase 2 converting 16S,17S-ePDn-3 DPA to PD2n-3 DPA in human monocytes. Taken together these results establish the PDn-3 DPA biosynthetic pathway in human monocytes and macrophages and its role in regulating macrophage resolution responses.
Keywords: lipid mediators; omega-3; resolution; total organic synthesis.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.