Picture-Based Memory Impairment Screen: Effective Cognitive Screen in Ethnically Diverse Populations

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2018 Aug;66(8):1598-1602. doi: 10.1111/jgs.15422. Epub 2018 May 29.


Objectives: To describe the psychometric properties of the Picture-based Memory Impairment Screen (PMIS) in a multidisciplinary memory disorder center serving an ethnically and educationally diverse community.

Design: Cross-sectional cohort study.

Setting: Montefiore Center for Aging Brain (CAB) PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with cognitive complaints (N=405; average age 76±10, 66% female).

Measurements: A geriatrician or neurologist administered the PMIS, and a neuropsychologist administered the Blessed Information, Memory, and Concentration (BIMC) test and determined whether participants had dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or subjective cognitive complaints (SCC).

Results: Mean PMIS scores were 4.0±2.6 in participants with dementia (n=194), 6.8±1.5 in those with MCI (n= 155), and 7.0±1.8 in those with SCC (n= 56) (p<.001). PMIS scores showed similar significant linear trends when analyzed according to ethnicity, education, sex, and language. The PMIS was negatively correlated with BIMC score (p<.001). The PMIS had positive predictive value of 77%, negative predictive value of 73%, sensitivity of 68%, and specificity of 81% to detect all-cause dementia in this population of individuals with cognitive complaints.

Conclusion: The PMIS is a quick, valid screening tool to identify cognitive impairment in individuals with cognitive complaints that accounts for cultural and educational differences.

Keywords: cognitive screen; dementia; epidemiology.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / diagnosis*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dementia / diagnosis*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Memory Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Mental Status and Dementia Tests / standards*
  • Photography
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity