Epidemiology of congenital heart diseases in Bogotá, Colombia, from 2001 to 2014: Improved surveillance or increased prevalence?

Biomedica. 2018 May 1;38(0):148-155. doi: 10.7705/biomedica.v38i0.3381.


Introduction: Congenital heart diseases are functional and structural alterations of the heart, circulatory system, and large vessels, which develop during cardiac embryogenesis. These defects are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of congenital heart diseases in Bogotá, Colombia, through the period 2001 to 2014 and evaluate the trend in time.

Materials and methods: We analyzed 405,408 births from the Programa de Vigilancia y Seguimiento de Niños con Anomalías Congénitas de la Secretaría Distrital de Salud de Bogotá. We calculated the prevalence of congenital heart diseases through a daily registry of births, the clinical evaluation, and the work-up. Congenital heart diseases were classified as isolated, complex or associated. We estimated the prevalence per year and the mortality in the first hours of life.

Results: The total prevalence of congenital heart diseases was 15.1 per 10,000 newborns; however, we obtained values above 20 per 10,000 newborns in the previous 3 years. Of the newborns analyzed, 46% were females, 53.16% were males, and 0.33% undetermined. Out of the newborns with congenital anomalies, 397 had congenital heart diseases, 142 of which were classified as associated and 74 as complex.

Conclusion: Congenital heart diseases have a significant impact on childhood morbidity and mortality. Although the prevalence continues to be low compared to other countries, this could be due to under registry nationwide. There was an increase in prevalence during the previous three years, which might be explained by the implementation of local and national programs. Therefore, we suggest continuing the development and promotion of such programs aimed at increasing screening and registration of these anomalies.

Keywords: Heart defects, congenital/epidemiology; congenital abnormalities; infant mortality; prevalence.

MeSH terms

  • Colombia / epidemiology
  • Epidemiological Monitoring
  • Female
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / epidemiology*
  • Heart Diseases / congenital*
  • Heart Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Registries
  • Time Factors