Adenoviruses were found in 8.6% of 900 pediatric inpatients with diarrhea who were tested by electron microscopy of a fecal specimen and cell culture inoculation of a throat swab and an anal swab specimen. In 5.1% of these patients, including 13.5% of patients who were four through five months of age, adenovirus particles were visualized in the fecal specimen. Controlled study demonstrated that visualized adenoviruses, especially those that did not grow readily in conventional Hep-2 cell cultures, were significantly associated with diarrhea. About 80% of the visualized adenoviruses from patients with diarrhea or vomiting or both, including 94% of the viruses that grew in the 293 cell line but that did not grow readily in Hep-2 cultures, proved to be enteral adenoviruses--adenoviruses from either group F (type 40) or group G (type 41). Inpatients with gastroenteritis and confirmed enteral adenoviruses ranged in age from one through 16 months, with a median age of seven months. Enteral adenoviruses apparently are endemic in this locale, as one or more of these viruses have been found in every calendar month for nine successive years.