The aim was to compare the clinical (plaque index [PI], bleeding on probing [BOP], probing pocket depth [PPD] and clinical attachment loss [CAL]) and radiographic (marginal bone loss [MBL]) periodontal parameters and whole salivary cotinine, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels among cigarette-smokers, waterpipe-smokers, E-cig users and never-smokers. In total, 154 male individuals (39 cigarette-smokers, 40 waterpipe-smokers, 37 E-cig users and 38 never-smokers) were included. Full mouth PI, BOP, PPD and CAL were measured on all teeth (excluding third molars); and MBL was measured in digital intra-oral radiographs. Unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR) and whole salivary cotinine, IL-1β and IL-6 levels were measured. Group comparisons were performed using one way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc tests. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. There was no difference in UWSFR among the groups. Cotinine levels were significantly higher among cigarette- (P < 0.001) and waterpipe-smokers (P < 0.001) and E-cig users (P < 0.001) than never-smokers. IL-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.01) levels were significantly higher among cigarette- and waterpipe-smokers than E-cig users and never-smokers. There was no difference in PPD, CAL, mesial and distal MBL and whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels among E-cig users and never-smokers. In conclusion, clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontal inflammation were poorer in cigarette and waterpipe smokers than E-cig users and never-smokers; and whole salivary cotinine levels were similar in all groups. Whole salivary IL-1β and IL-6 levels were higher in cigarette- and waterpipe-smokers than E-cig users and never-smokers.
Keywords: Cigarette smoking; Cotinine; Interleukin; Periodontal disease; Questionnaire; Waterpipe, unstimulated whole saliva.
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