Purpose: Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2007-2012 were used to evaluate the interactions of cadmium (Cd) exposure with being overweight/obesity on the risk of prediabetes among adults 20 years older.
Methods: A total of 3552 subjects were included in the analysis. Urinary cadmium levels (UCd) was used as a biomarker for long-term exposure to Cd. Additive interaction was estimated using relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) and synergy index (S).
Results: Following covariates adjustments, we found significant associations of UCd with higher prediabetes prevalence, and this association was more apparent in males (Q4 vs Q1: OR = 1.95, 95%CI: 1.34-2.84); while overweight/obesity was associated with prediabetes both in males and in females. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between Cd exposure and being overweight/obesity on prediabetes risk among males (RERI = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.42-1.93; AP = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.12-0.58; S = 2.00, 95% CI: 0.92-4.34).
Conclusions: Our results suggest that being overweight/obesity may substantially amplify the adverse effects of long-term cadmium exposure on prediabetes risk, and this interaction is more severe in male adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Keywords: Cadmium; Interaction; Obesity; Prediabetes.