Managing Hot Flushes in Menopausal Women: A Review

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2018 Jun;28(6):460-465. doi: 10.29271/jcpsp.2018.06.460.


Hot flushes during menopause are distressing for women and result in poor quality of life. Purpose of the current review was to evaluate the available treatment modalities that should be utilised for the management of hot flushes. Menopause refers to last menses of women life and can be declared after amenorrhea of 12 months. Vasomotor symptoms including hot flushes and night sweats are common after menopause, affecting almost 50 - 85% women older than 45 years. The mean increment in core body and skin temperature is 0.5°C and 0.25 - 3°C during a hot flush attack. Low level of estrogen during menopause and its association in triggering episodes of hot flushes, is still under debate. The most accepted hypothesis is a narrowing of the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) triggered by estrogen fluctuations. Although, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) remains the standard treatment for the alleviation of such symptoms, incidence of life threatening side effects restrained medical professionals from its use. Complications associated with the use of HRT can be avoided by appropriate evaluation of patients before initiating therapy. Several guidelines have also recommended HRT (estrogen and progesterone) to be safe for up to a period of seven years. Both hormonal and non-hormonal treatments are used for the management of hot flushes. Since hot flushes are the least appreciated and neglected complication of menopause, current review provides detailed information on its background, pathophysiology and management, and emphasises the need of its treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Complementary Therapies*
  • Female
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy*
  • Hot Flashes / physiopathology*
  • Hot Flashes / psychology
  • Hot Flashes / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Menopause / physiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Quality of Life*
  • Sweating