Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2018 May 30;5(2):32.
doi: 10.3390/jcdd5020032.

Trends in Deaths From Rheumatic Heart Disease in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Burden and Challenges

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Trends in Deaths From Rheumatic Heart Disease in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Burden and Challenges

Azza M A M Abul-Fadl et al. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a preventable disease that is prevalent in developing regions of the world. Its eradication from most of the developed world indicates that this disease can be controlled and eliminated. Aim: To conduct an in-depth analysis of the trends and challenges of controlling RHD in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). Methodology: Global data from the World Health Organization (WHO) data banks were retrieved for total deaths and age standardized death rate per 100,000 (ASDR) by age group, sex, and year (from 2000 to 2015). The data was compared with the five other WHO regions of the world. We also performed in-depth analysis by socio-economic groups in relation to other attributes in the region related to population growth, illiteracy, and nutritional status. Indicators of service delivery were correlated with ASDR from RHD. Findings: Prevalence of RHD in 2015 in the EMR region was one-third of that of the total deaths reported in the Asian and West Pacific regions. The total deaths for the region peaked twice: in early adulthood and again later in old age, and was higher in females than in males. There was a rising trend in deaths from RHD from 2000 to 2015. The highest total deaths were reported from Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Yemen, representing 80% of the total death rates for the region (35,248). The highest ASDR was Afghanistan (27.5), followed by Yemen (18.78) and Egypt (15.59). The ASDR for RHD was highest in low income countries. It correlated highly, in all income groups, with anemia during pregnancy. Conclusions: Trends and patterns of deaths from RHD in the EMR have shifted to a later age group and are linked with poverty related to inequalities in development and service delivery for certain age groups and gender.

Keywords: deaths; global data; health services; rheumatic fever; rheumatic heart disease; trends.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Trends in total deaths (Y axis) from Rheumatic Heart Disease by age and sex in the Eastern Mediterraenan Region (EMR).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Comparison of the trends in total deaths from rheumatic heart disease in the Eastern Mediterranean region from the year 2000 to 2015.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Comparison of the prevalence of Rheumatic heart disease in the Eastern Mediterranean region with other regions in the world in 2015.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Total deaths from Rheumatic heart disease for the 20 countries with reported data in the Eastern Mediterranean region (Data source (www.worldlifeexpectancy.com), based on WHO data in 2014).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Age standardized deaths per 100,000 from Rheumatic Heart Disease for the 20 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Source: (www.worldlifeexpectancy.com) Data source: published by WHO, 2014.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 2 articles

References

    1. World Health Organization . Rheumatic Diseases: First Report of the Expert Committee. World Health Organization; Geneva, Switzerland: 1954. (WHO Technical Report Series No. 78).
    1. RHD Australia (ARF/RHD Writing Group) National Heart Foundation of Australia and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand . Australian Guideline for Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease. 2nd ed. National Heart Foundation of Australia; Melbourne, Australia: 2012.
    1. Heart Foundation of New Zealand . Group A Streptococcal Sore Throat Management Guideline. Heart Foundation of New Zealand; Auckland, New Zealand: 2014.
    1. Abdin Z., Eissa A.M. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in children below the age of 5 years in the tropics. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 1965;24:389. doi: 10.1136/ard.24.4.389. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Toor D., Sharma N. T cell subsets: An integral component in pathogenesis of rheumatic heart disease. Immunol. Res. 2018;66:18–30. doi: 10.1007/s12026-017-8978-z. - DOI - PubMed
Feedback