Leukotoxin of Bibersteinia trehalosi Contains a Unique Neutralizing Epitope, and a Non-Neutralizing Epitope Shared with Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin

Toxins (Basel). 2018 May 30;10(6):220. doi: 10.3390/toxins10060220.


Bibersteinia trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica, originally classified as Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T and biotype A, respectively, under Genus Pasteurella has now been placed under two different Genera, Bibersteinia and Mannheimia, based on DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S RNA studies. While M. haemolytica has been the predominant pathogen of pneumonia in ruminants, B. trehalosi is emerging as an important pathogen of ruminant pneumonia. Leukotoxin is the critical virulence factor of these two pathogens. While the leukotoxin of M. haemolytica has been well studied, the characterization of B. trehalosi leukotoxin has lagged behind. As the first step towards addressing this problem, we developed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against B. trehalosi leukotoxin and used them to characterize the leukotoxin epitopes. Two mAbs that recognized sequential epitopes on the leukotoxin were developed. One of them, AM113, neutralized B. trehalosi leukotoxin while the other, AM321, did not. The mAb AM113 revealed the existence of a neutralizing epitope on B. trehalosi leukotoxin that is not present on M. haemolytica leukotoxin. A previously developed mAb, MM601, revealed the presence of a neutralizing epitope on M. haemolytica leukotoxin that is not present on B. trehalosi leukotoxin. The mAb AM321 recognized a non-neutralizing epitope shared by the leukotoxins of B. trehalosi and M. haemolytica. The mAb AM113 should pave the way for mapping the leukotoxin-neutralizing epitope on B. trehalosi leukotoxin and the development of subunit vaccines and/or virus-vectored vaccines against this economically important respiratory pathogen of ruminants.

Keywords: Bibersteinia trehalosi; Mannheimia haemolytica; leukotoxin; neutralizing epitope.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology*
  • Cattle
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Epitopes / immunology*
  • Exotoxins / immunology*
  • Exotoxins / toxicity
  • Female
  • Mannheimia haemolytica*
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Pasteurellaceae*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Epitopes
  • Exotoxins
  • leukotoxin