Congenital chloride diarrhea needs to be distinguished from Bartter and Gitelman syndrome

J Hum Genet. 2018 Jul;63(8):887-892. doi: 10.1038/s10038-018-0470-7. Epub 2018 May 30.


Pseudo-Bartter/Gitelman syndrome (p-BS/GS) encompasses a clinically heterogeneous group of inherited or acquired disorders similar to Bartter syndrome (BS) or Gitelman syndrome (GS), both renal salt-losing tubulopathies. Phenotypic overlap frequently occurs between p-BS/GS and BS/GS, which are difficult to diagnose based on their clinical presentation and require genetic tests for accurate diagnosis. In addition, p-BS/GS can occur as a result of other inherited diseases such as cystic fibrosis, autosomal dominant hypocalcemia, Dent disease, or congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD). However, the detection of the variants in genes other than known BS/GS-causing genes by conventional Sanger sequencing requires substantial time and resources. We studied 27 cases clinically diagnosed with BS/GS, but with negative genetic tests for known BS/GS genes. We conducted targeted sequencing for 22 genes including genes responsible for tubulopathies and other inherited diseases manifesting with p-BS/GS symptoms. We detected the SLC26A3 gene variants responsible for CCD in two patients. In Patient 1, we found the SLC26A3 compound heterozygous variants: c.354delC and c.1008insT. In Patient 2, we identified the compound heterozygous variants: c.877G > A, p.(Glu293Lys), and c.1008insT. Our results suggest that a comprehensive genetic screening system using targeted sequencing is useful for the diagnosis of patients with p-BS/GS with alternative genetic origins.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Bartter Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Bartter Syndrome / genetics
  • Base Sequence
  • Child
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Diarrhea / congenital*
  • Diarrhea / diagnosis
  • Diarrhea / genetics
  • Female
  • Gitelman Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Gitelman Syndrome / genetics
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Metabolism, Inborn Errors / diagnosis*
  • Metabolism, Inborn Errors / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA

Supplementary concepts

  • Congenital chloride diarrhea