The histories of 94 patients with a diagnosis of uterine sarcoma, treated from 1962 to 1982, at the Medical College of Virginia Hospital were reviewed. Histologic features were studied by one of the authors (V.S.), and cases that did not meet strict pathologic criteria were rejected. The 71 patients with uterine sarcoma accepted for this study had a survival rate of 22.5% from 1 to 11 years. Survival rates were similar for leiomyosarcoma, mixed mesodermal tumor, and endometrial stromal sarcoma. Clinical staging had some predictive value, since 45 patients with Stage I disease had a 27% survival rate, and 26 patients with Stages II, III, and IV disease had only a 12% survival rate (p less than 0.05). The type of treatment had no demonstrable effect on final outcome but did influence the recurrence patterns. Chemotherapy (used in 25 patients) was neither of benefit when used as adjuvant therapy nor effective in prolonging survival in patients with recurrence (mean survival, 5.4 months).