3D and 4D Bioprinting of the Myocardium: Current Approaches, Challenges, and Future Prospects

Biomed Res Int. 2018 Apr 22;2018:6497242. doi: 10.1155/2018/6497242. eCollection 2018.


3D and 4D bioprinting of the heart are exciting notions in the modern era. However, myocardial bioprinting has proven to be challenging. This review outlines the methods, materials, cell types, issues, challenges, and future prospects in myocardial bioprinting. Advances in 3D bioprinting technology have significantly improved the manufacturing process. While scaffolds have traditionally been utilized, 3D bioprinters, which do not require scaffolds, are increasingly being employed. Improved understanding of the cardiac cellular composition and multiple strategies to tackle the issues of vascularization and viability had led to progress in this field. In vivo studies utilizing small animal models have been promising. 4D bioprinting is a new concept that has potential to advance the field of 3D bioprinting further by incorporating the fourth dimension of time. Clinical translation will require multidisciplinary collaboration to tackle the pertinent issues facing this field.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bioprinting / methods*
  • Bioprinting / trends*
  • Humans
  • Myocardium / cytology*
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic
  • Printing, Three-Dimensional / trends*
  • Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry