International Expert Consensus Document on Takotsubo Syndrome (Part I): Clinical Characteristics, Diagnostic Criteria, and Pathophysiology

Eur Heart J. 2018 Jun 7;39(22):2032-2046. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehy076.


Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a poorly recognized heart disease that was initially regarded as a benign condition. Recently, it has been shown that TTS may be associated with severe clinical complications including death and that its prevalence is probably underestimated. Since current guidelines on TTS are lacking, it appears timely and important to provide an expert consensus statement on TTS. The clinical expert consensus document part I summarizes the current state of knowledge on clinical presentation and characteristics of TTS and agrees on controversies surrounding TTS such as nomenclature, different TTS types, role of coronary artery disease, and etiology. This consensus also proposes new diagnostic criteria based on current knowledge to improve diagnostic accuracy.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference

MeSH terms

  • Age Distribution
  • Catecholamines / metabolism
  • Coronary Artery Disease / physiopathology
  • Coronary Vasospasm / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology
  • Microcirculation
  • Nervous System Diseases / epidemiology
  • Plaque, Atherosclerotic / physiopathology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / diagnosis*
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / epidemiology
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / metabolism
  • Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy / physiopathology*
  • Terminology as Topic


  • Catecholamines