Aim: Studies suggest that fatty acid intake may be an important determinant of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aims to prospectively examine the association between fatty acid quantity and quality with risk of T2DM in adults.
Methods: In this community-based prospective sample, 2139 adults, free of T2DM, aged 20-70y-old were followed for a median of 5.8 y. Diet information was collected with the use of a validated questionnaire at baseline. Cox regression and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, diabetes risk score (DRS), and dietary intakes of energy, fiber and magnesium, were used to evaluate the association of fatty acid intakes with incident T2DM.
Results: During follow-up, we identified 143 incident T2D cases. In multivariable analyses, when extreme quintiles were compared, cholesterol (HR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.20-0.82; P-trend, 0.02), monounsaturated fatty acids (HR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70; P-trend, 0.02), polyunsaturated fatty acids (HR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.24-0.93 P-trend = 0.04) and ω-3 fatty acids (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.88; P-trend = 0.02) were associated with T2DM. The ratio of ω-6 to total ω-3 intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D (HR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.05-2.86; P-trend, 0.04). We also found positive associations between the ratios of total fat to ω-3 (HR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.02-2.46; P-trend = 0.05).
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that diets with high cholesterol, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and ω-3 fatty acids are associated with a lower risk of T2DM. Also the ratios of ω-6/ω-3 and total fat/ω-3 were positively associated with T2DM.
Keywords: Diet; Fatty acids; Mono-unsaturated fat; Saturated fats; Type 2 diabetes; poly-unsaturated fat.
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