Function and Regulation of Protein Kinase D in Oxidative Stress: A Tale of Isoforms

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018 Apr 26:2018:2138502. doi: 10.1155/2018/2138502. eCollection 2018.


Oxidative stress is a condition that arises when cells are faced with levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that destabilize the homeostatic redox balance. High levels of ROS can cause damage to macromolecules including DNA, lipids, and proteins, eventually resulting in cell death. Moderate levels of ROS however serve as signaling molecules that can drive and potentiate several cellular phenotypes. Increased levels of ROS are associated with a number of diseases including neurological disorders and cancer. In cancer, increased ROS levels can contribute to cancer cell survival and proliferation via the activation of several signaling pathways. One of the downstream effectors of increased ROS is the protein kinase D (PKD) family of kinases. In this review, we will discuss the regulation and function of this family of ROS-activated kinases and describe their unique isoform-specific features, in terms of both kinase regulation and signaling output.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism*
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism*


  • Protein Isoforms
  • protein kinase D
  • Protein Kinase C