Chronic Consumption of Sweeteners and Its Effect on Glycaemia, Cytokines, Hormones, and Lymphocytes of GALT in CD1 Mice

Biomed Res Int. 2018 Apr 24;2018:1345282. doi: 10.1155/2018/1345282. eCollection 2018.


Background: The consumption of sweeteners has increased in recent years, being used to control body weight and blood glucose. However, they can cause increased appetite, modification of immune function, and secretion of hormones in the GALT.

Objective: To assess the effect of chronic sweetener consumption on glycaemia, cytokines, hormones, and GALT lymphocytes in CD1 mice.

Material and methods: 72 CD1 mice divided into 3 groups were used: (a) baseline, (b) middle, and (c) final. Groups (b) and (c) were divided into 4 subgroups: (i) Control, (ii) Sucrose, (iii) Sucralose, and (iv) Stevia. The following were determined: body weight, hormones (GIP, insulin, and leptin), lymphocytes CD3+T cells and CD19+B cells, IgA+ plasma cells, and cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IFN-γ, and TNF-α).

Results: Sucralose reduces secretion of GIP and glycaemia but does not modify insulin concentration, increases body weight, and reduces food intake. Stevia increases the secretion of GIP, insulin, leptin, body weight, and glycaemia but keeps food consumption normal. Sucralose and Stevia showed a higher percentage of CD3+T cells, CD19+B cells, and IgA+ plasma cells in Peyer's patches, but only Stevia in lamina propria.

Conclusion: Sweeteners modulate the hormonal response of cytokines and the proliferation of lymphocytes in the intestinal mucosa.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology
  • Lymphocytes / drug effects*
  • Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Lymphoid Tissue / drug effects*
  • Lymphoid Tissue / immunology
  • Mice
  • Sweetening Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Sweetening Agents / adverse effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Sweetening Agents