Ginseng is a traditional Chinese medicine with a wide range of pharmacological activities. Ginsenosides are the major constituents of ginseng. Ginsenosides have the unique biological activity and medicinal value, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, and inhibition of cell apoptosis. With the increase of stress in life, the incidence of nervous system diseases is also increasing. Neurological diseases pose a huge burden on people's life and health. In recent years, some studies have shown that ginsenosides have a certain role in the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases. However, the research is still in its infancy, and the relevant mechanisms are complex. In the paper, we review the effects and mechanisms of ginsenosides on epilepsy, depression, cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We hope to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of nervous system diseases by ginsenosides.