Children, adolescents, and young adults with chronic refractory autoimmune cytopenias represent a rare but challenging group of patients, who are managed frequently by pediatric hematologists. Novel diagnostic tests and genomic discoveries are refining historical diagnoses of Evans syndrome and common variable immunodeficiency, while also elucidating the cellular and molecular basis for these disorders. Genetic characterization of chronic and refractory autoimmune cytopenias has led to targeted therapies with improved clinical outcomes and fewer off-target toxicities. In this review, we focus on the appropriate diagnostic workup, expanded genetic testing, and novel treatment opportunities that are available for these challenging patients.
Keywords: AIHA; CVID; Evans syndrome; ITP; alps; cytopenia; immunohematology.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.